This is one vegetable we all dread eating! Thanks to its unbearable bitter taste, bitter gourd is infamous for spoiling palettes. But, science has a different story to tell. This vegetable is one of the healthiest foods you can have.
This fruit (yes, it is a fruit!) has high amounts of vitamin A, C, E, and B, potassium, zinc, and other micronutrients. Drinking its juice can almost reverse diabetes. Discover more such interesting facts about bitter melon in this article.
Table Of Contents
Bitter melon or bitter gourd (Momordica charantia) is a member of the squash family, Cucurbitaceae. It is commonly known as balsam pear or karela and is widely cultivated in Asia, South America, the Caribbean, and East Africa.
The USP of this gourd is its characteristic taste. Mature bitter gourd tastes sharp and bitter, which is why many people dislike it.
However, it offers a range of health benefits. All credit goes to its dense nutritional profile .
Scroll down the next section to find out the benefits and nutrients of bitter melon.
There is ample evidence that throws light on the benefits of bitter gourd. Its fruit, pulp, skin, seeds, and leaves are good for your health. The phytochemicals of this melon have a positive effect on diabetes, liver health, obesity, and related conditions.
Abundant pre-clinical studies prove the antidiabetic property of bitter gourd. It exerts a hypoglycemic effect by controlling glucose metabolism.
It inhibits glucose uptake in the intestines and boosts its use in the muscles. The extracts of bitter gourd protect the pancreatic cells from pro-inflammatory cells and compounds.
The fruit pulp, seeds, and whole plant extracts of bitter gourd are documented to have a hypoglycemic (insulin-like) effect. The saponins, alkaloids, and polyphenols present in bitter gourd are responsible for increased insulin tolerance and glucose uptake.
Along with glucose metabolism, bitter melon works on lipid metabolism as well. Studies have proven that it can reduce fat accumulation, thus exerting an anti-obesity effect.
Adding bitter gourd to the diet reduced the effect of high-fat food in rats. It was observed that the fruit could prevent weight gain by altering the corresponding gene expression.
Another recent study suggests that bitter melon seed oil may deplete the fat reserves in your body by selectively killing adipocytes (fat storage cells). This is because it contains active molecules like triterpenoid glycosides, alkaloids, flavonoids, polyphenols, carotenoids, and fatty acids that prevent the inflammation of adipose tissue, which is often linked to metabolic disorder.
Pre-clinical trials on rats demonstrate the hepatoprotective (liver-friendly) properties of bitter gourd. Obesity, diabetes, high-fat diets, and alcohol lead to the development of a fatty liver. Inflammation and free radicals can worsen such liver injuries.
Eating bitter melon can control oxidative damage as it can block the fat accumulation and lipid peroxidation mechanism. This slows down inflammation-induced cell death in the liver.
It also enhances your body’s antioxidant system, i.e., in-house enzymes like catalase and superoxide dismutase. Above all, bitter gourd extracts can stop the liver damage induced by chronic alcohol intake.
Bitter gourd helps ease bowel movement. It is a proven laxative and digestion stimulant. Patients with hemorrhoids showed signs of improvement when a bitter melon leaf extract was given to them.
Bitter gourd also stimulates your gut cells to secrete more digestive juices. That is how it helps digest food quicker and better.
Efficient digestion is often followed by smooth bowel movement. By preventing constipation, bitter melons relieve the pressure on the veins inside the hemorrhoids.
This squash family member has excellent anti-inflammatory properties. It can treat various skin conditions like eczema, rashes, leprosy, psoriasis, wounds, and sores. The indigenous tribes of Africa and Asia use a paste made from the bitter gourd plant to apply on blisters and injuries topically.
Rabbit studies demonstrated the effect of skin creams enriched with bitter melon extracts on wounds. Rabbits that received this cream treatment experienced improved and accelerated wound healing.
The peel of this fruit has the maximum potential to prevent skin cancers. Cancer studies found that bitter gourd extracts improved the quality of life and life span of mice.
Almost all parts of the bitter melon plant have anticancer properties. Its extract inhibits cancer cell growth by triggering programmed cell death (apoptosis)
Its seed oil has biologically active fatty acids that interfere with the proliferation of breast and liver cancer cell lines. Also, the whole fruit and skin extract of bitter melon show high efficacy in battling colon cancer.
Bitter gourd extract was found to be selectively toxic to prostate cancer cells in mouse studies. It also regulates the levels of pro- and anti-inflammatory proteins in the affected tissue. It slows down the overall growth and migration of cervical, nose and pharynx, and blood cancers as well.
Helminthic infections (diseases caused by parasitic worms) due to cestodes, nematodes, and trematodes affect humans and livestock. Extracts of various parts of bitter gourd showed anthelmintic activity against adult earthworms.
Recent studies claim that bitter melon phytochemicals are responsible for this activity. Saponins, alkaloids, oligoglycosides, flavonoids, and tannins are most effective in killing the nematodes (worms). They can paralyze them and disrupt their vascular and nervous system.
These phytochemicals can restrict the migration and survival of young nematode larvae. Having bitter gourd can reduce the worm load in your body and ultimately prevent such helminthic infections from worsening.
These benefits force you to overlook the bitter taste of bitter gourd, don’t they?
But have you ever wondered what makes bitter gourd so good for your health? It’s the phytonutrients. Check out the next section for the nutrition details.
|NUTRITIONAL VALUE PER 1 CUP (1/2″ PIECES) 93 G|
|Total lipid (fat)||g||0.16|
|Carbohydrate, by difference||g||3.44|
|Fiber, total dietary||g||2.6|
|Vitamin C, total ascorbic acid||mg||78.1|
|Vitamin A, RAE||µg||22|
|Vitamin A, IU||IU||438|
|Lutein + zeaxanthin||µg||158|
This nutrient-dense food has a powerful phytochemical profile. Its main constituents include triterpene, steroid, alkaloid, inorganic, lipid, and phenolic compounds.
Charantin, cryptoxanthin, cucurbitin, cucurbitacin, cucurbitane, nerolidol, rubixanthin, spinasterol, steroidal glycosides, stigmasta-diols, stigmasterol, taraxerol, trehalose, verbascoside, vicine, zeatin, zeaxanthin, ascorbigen,citrulline, elasterol, lutein, and lycopene were identified in bitter gourd in biochemical analyses.
Organic acids like galacturonic acid, eleostearic acid, lauric acid, linoleic acid, linolenic acid, gentisic acid, myristic acid, rosmarinic acid, oleic acid, oxalic acid, pipecolic acid, and petroselinic acid also occur in various parts of the bitter gourd plant.
These bioactive ingredients act together to offer you the various health benefits. Making bitter gourd a part of your diet is the best way to put them to work. Here are a few quick ways.
Bitter gourd is a versatile veggie. You can blend it into a drink, add it to soups and curries, or have it as deep-fried chips, crisps, or fritters.
Here’s a tasty recipe for fried bitter melon chips.
Tip: Soaking the bitter melon pieces in salt water for about 30 minutes prior to cooking may help in getting rid of the bitter taste.
Also, seeding the melon before cooking it enhances the taste and texture of the dish. However, some people like to cook it without doing so.
Bitter gourd or bitter melon is a bitter-tasting member of the cucumber family. Its fruit, seeds, peel, leaf, and various plant parts are known for being highly nutritious. Bitter melon extracts possess potent antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, anti-obesity, anti-proliferative, and liver- and heart-friendly properties.
Including it in your diet makes you active and healthy. There are claims about this melon being unsafe for human consumption, but there is insufficient and inconclusive data to prove its toxicity.
We, however, urge you to talk to your healthcare provider about this nutrient-dense veggie. If you have any queries, suggestions, and relevant comments on this subject, leave them in the comments section below. Honest feedback is also welcome!
Until next time, guard your immunity with bitter gourd!
Q: How much bitter gourd is safe to eat?
A: The upper intake limit for bitter gourd has not been established yet. There is almost no report on the toxicity of this fruit in humans. However, recent studies have pointed out herb-drug interactions with bitter gourd. Therefore, we recommend you follow the serving size advised by your healthcare provider. You may avoid undesirable cross-reactions this way.
Q: Are bitter melon seeds poisonous?
A: There is no evidence proving the toxicity of bitter melon seeds. These seeds contain beneficial essential oils and fats that offer several health benefits. But, they also contain cucumber-like triterpenes that are not completely safe for human health. Talk to your nutritionist to find out more about the safety of bitter melon seeds.
Q: Can bitter gourd be eaten raw?
A: Yes, you can eat raw bitter gourd. But, its bitter taste will be overpowering. This is why many people prefer blending it with other vegetables to make fresh green juice. You can add carrots, apples, and other naturally-sweet tasting fruits or vegetables to this drink as well.
Comments will be approved before showing up.